Posters 2016

 Adryana Diniz Gomes (PPGARTES / UERJ)

The rise of art criticism in Brazil: Felix Ferreira.

Criticism and reviews are two common literary genres in cultural journalism. In Brazil, these two genres have been present since the middle of 19th century, which was a moment of growth for the Brazilian press – especially in Rio de Janeiro – and of developing for the national artistic production. At that time, there was not a specific formation for the journalist who writes about art and that provokes problems in the textual production, but still we can find good quality work and relevant critics. One of them is Felix Ferreira.

Felix Ferreira published, in 1885, the first Brazilian book about art criticism ‘Belas Artes: estudos e apreciações’ (Fine Arts: studies and appreciations) inspired by the Salon in 1884. Although he was a prestigious writer and journalist, the book did not succeed at that time and still today it is eclipsed by other works.

For this research project, I investigate the birth of cultural journalism in Brazil through art criticism during the 19th century, on the perspective of the democratization of the access to the art. A case study is presented here, focusing on Felix Ferreira’s work ‘Belas Artes: estudos e apreciações’.

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Alexandre Mascarenhas (IFMG e UFRJ))

Antonio Teixeira Lopes and the main doors of Candelaria: the constructive sculptural process in sculpture workshops and Porto Academy of Fine Arts between the nineteenth and twentieth centuries

This paper discusses the sculptural building process spread in the portuguese sculptor ‘s studio Antonio Teixeira Lopes in Vila Nova de Gaia and its contribution as a student , teacher and Vice – President of the Porto Academy of Fine Arts in Porto, northern Portugal.

The sculpture workshops in Portugal in the eighteenth century, still had their learning and training based on traditions involving family relationships. The arrival of foreigners contributed to the training through an organizational structure divided by classes of crafts and division of services. These professional groups were organized by specialties were responsible for contracts in Alcobaça, Batalha, Santarém, Lisbon, Belem or Mafra, and did radiate to many regions of the country experienced officers.

This division of labor process could be notoriously perceived in the “School of Mafra “, coordinated by Alexandre Giusti, the “laboratory” of Joaquim Machado de Castro in Lisbon, as well as in managed workshops belatedly by Soares dos Reis or Antonio Teixeira Lopes in Vila Nova de Gaia and Porto from the mid-nineteenth century.

Antonio Texeira Lopes began his apprenticeship in the art of drawing and modeling with his father, José Joaquim Teixeira Lopes. Recognized as one of the sculpture exponents in Portugal, he was inserted in a cultural and political context of elite and privileges and built a solid and long career permeated medals, international awards and orders for work throughout the country and abroad.

In 1897, the Church of Our Lady of Candelaria, in Rio de Janeiro, opened international competition for the design of its three main access doors. Thus, Teixeira Lopes masterminded several sketches, made small scale models in plaster, conceived preparatory model in life-size clay where he performed the mould plaster “tacelos” that were later transported to France as a basis for the bronze casting. This set was presented at the Exposition Universelle of 1900 in Paris, and was sent to Brazil, where it was received, in 1901, by notable Brazilian sculptors, among them Rodolfo Bernardelli, director of the National School of Fine Arts .

In this way, we intend to enhance the “hierarchical phasing Vasari” that Antonio Teixeira Lopes spread in his studio sculpture that includes the steps of “drawing exercises”, “how to model” and “how to carve”, and later spread this “process” in the disciplines of design figure and architecture, modeling and sculpture, “nude Classroom” and “Sketching ” as a teacher at the Porto Academy of Fine Arts.

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Aline Viana Tomé (UFJF)

The urbe and the nature: the picturesque nooks in Eliseu Visconti’ work

Between the finals of the nineteenth and the twentieth century, Rio de Janeiro became Eliseu Visconti’s (1866-1944) target of pictorial interest. We notice in the artist’s works, a genuine interest in the city urban landscape. While a student, he frequented the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts, returning later as a recognized and as a professor of the institution, now transformed into the National School of Fine Arts. In the period represented by Visconti, the urbe, as well as its citizens, witnessed many transformations. The slavery abolishment, the passage from Empire to Republic, the Imperial Academy reformation and the urbanistic restructuring. Thus, we can see the painter as a privileged spectator, who registers in his work these transformations, living the city of Rio de Janeiro and the painting in its modification, not as from the outside, but inside the whole process.

In the following assignment, we search the reflection concerning the picturesque nooks made by Visconti, as well as his relation with his time pictorial production. To understand the reasons chosen by the painter no only as plastic experimentation, really present in the artistic debate of the time, but also as converging with the places experienced by Visconti, going towards the sensations apprehended by the artist. The motif represented is not a pretext for the work’s execution, but the text itself, which configures the intimate relation with the site placed on the scene. Thus, on his canvases related to the suburbs of the city, transformed in the name of modernization, we notice, in addition to the debate on the artistic practice, the way that the painter used to see those places. Thereby, we propose to think at what point, when placed side by side, the works related to the “carioca” urban landscape, do not tell a lot about how the painters who painted them see the world.

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Bárbara Ferreira Fernandes (PPGHIS/UFJF)

The history painting and its role on the legitimation of the State: the official paintings commissioned by the Imperial Senate.

 In the 1870s, the Senate’s president, Viscount of Abaeté, commissioned three history paintings for Imperial Academy of Fine Arts’ professors: Victor Meirelles and Pedro Américo. For the first one was given the job of painting the canvas called “Juramento da Princesa Isabel” and the second one was responsible for two portraits entitled: “Dom Pedro I na Abertura da Assembléia Geral em 1826” e “Dom Pedro II na Abertura da Assembleia Geral”. The paintings’ requests were made to the Academy or directly with the artists, usually, using official letters and correspondences.

Throughout the second reign, it was developed a political project of symbols creation, formulation of an imaginary in relation to the nation’s history, and government legitimation. On the 19th century the history paintings were used as part of this government program, therefore, the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts, as the main artistic institution of the time, such as its professors and students, have had an important role on this project. The paintings ordered by the Senate are a significant source of apprehension of which moment was chosen to be represented and eternalized, besides that they form a major way of reflections for researches about the nation’s legitimation and foundation project.

The national’s memory building process are complex and require constant researches about the ways they occurred in each different and concrete situation. I will work, in this paper, in order to realize the path taken by this government project. So that, I will explore the relationship between the history paintings that were commissioned by official agencies, more specifically the Senate, and the Brazilians emperors’ legitimation process. Furthermore, I will discuss the role of the artists that were known as “official monarchies’ painters” such as the senate and Viscount of Abaeté participations on the legitimizing process headed by the State through the official orders of history paintings in the 1870s. At last, I will compare the differences and similarities between the images that were constructed about Dom Pedro I, Dom Pedro II and Princess Isabel.

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Carlos Lima Júnior (USP)

A crime against art ?: Revisiting the troubled “1887 Travel Award”

In the late of 1887, the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts announced the name of Oscar Pereira da Silva (1865-1939), as the winner of the Travel Award, which proposed theme was the “Flagellation of Christ”. That contest, last held in the Empire, was recognized in the history of Brazilian art by its outcome somewhat troubled. When the awards granted to Pereira da Silva, a discussion was initiated among teachers of the Academy, polarized into two groups: on the one hand, the jury awarded the prize to the painting number 6, painted by Pereira da Silva, and the other the two “dissidents” teachers, Rodolpho Bernardelli and Zeferino da Costa, who vehemently challenged the decision of the judging panel, and came out in defense of another competitor, the student Belmiro de Almeida, author of the painting number . The case went beyond the walls of the Academy, extending to the main serials of the court to the ears of the Imperial Government.

The conflict, which revolves around such awards, also known as “1st Order Award”, as desired by aspiring artistic career, as enabled years of study in the major capitals of the arts, such as Rome or Paris, and thus access straight to the great works of the masters of the past, but also with own production of his time, reveals the aesthetic clashes in dispute within the Academy; a peak time of contestation of the values propagated by carioca educational institution, which would be revised a few years later, in 1890.

By unpublished documents, preserved in Brazil and France, it was possible to reveal new facets of scenes related to the moments leading up to, and those later, the definitive cancellation of the award, which took place in March 1888. I refer here to the various records that inform discussions among teachers, but above all, the position of senior officials of the Empire, meeting in session of the Council of State – and the Princess Isabel, who at that time was as Regent – when summoned to give opinion on the contention of “Fine Arts”. The Communication also aims to demonstrate the strategies deployed by the artist Pereira da Silva to resolve the impasse that existed since the annulment of the competition by the Imperial Government, and that may have facilitated their departure towards Paris in 1890, already under the blessings of Republic.

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Caroline Pires Ting (PPGARTES /UERJ)

Debret and Boudin in the Brazilian art collections

Our project regards the artworks of the French painters Eugène-Louis Boudin and Jean-Baptiste Debret in the context of their “Voyages Pittoresques” and the importance of these two artists at Brazilian public collections.

Debret’s book “Voyage pittoresque et historique au Brésil” (1834/39), one of the most important historical and iconographic works of the nineteenth century, follows a literary fashion initiated in Europe by travelogues. A notable example of this type of oeuvre was launched in 1820 “Voyages et pittoresques romantiques dans l’ancienne France”, jointly organized by Isidore Taylor and Charles Nodier.

In this work, whose publications extended from 1820 to 1878, Boudin collaborated with the latter editions, by participating in an expedition led by Taylor to Normandy. In this tour, held in 1849, the young Boudin executed drawings, which would later serve as references for the images included in volume “Ancienne Normandie” (1878).

In February 1922, coinciding with the moment when the Modern Art Week took place in Sao Paulo, the National Museum of Fine Arts in Rio de Janeiro acquired an important collection of Boudin paintings, donated by San Joaquin baroness.

We aim to study in parallel the works of Boudin and Debret, highlighting the opportunity offered us by these painters to observe shifts in paradigms within a particular artistic style named as “picturesque”.

We emphasize that Debret travelogue constituted one of the most beautiful manifestations of these artistic canon, in which the author sought to align his work to a particular sub-genre within the travel literature.

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Fabio Mourilhe (PPGAV/EBA/UFRJ)

Exposição Geral from 1884 of Academia Imperial de Belas Artes: model of operating and critical reception

It is intended to present the first questions raised by my master’s research, “Pedro Américo and the 1884 Fine Arts General Exhibition: Religious History Painting and Orientalism”, carried out at the Federal University of São Paulo Graduate Program in Art History (PPGHA-UNIFESP) and supervised by Elaine Dias.

This research aims to study three paintings maintained by the National Museum of Fine Arts in Rio de Janeiro: David and Abishag (1879), Judith and Holofernes (1880) and Moses and Jochebed (1884), painted by the Brazilian artist Pedro Américo (1843-1905). These paintings depict scenes from the Old Testament and were exhibited in 1884 at the 26th Fine Arts General Exhibition organized by the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts. Our research goal is to investigate this group of paintings in their formal and thematic conceptions, emphasizing its relationship with the renewal of religious history painting in the nineteenth century and the changes on that specific genre during this period, as well as the changes caused by the orientalism in the arts. It is also our objective to understand the place of these paintings in Pedro Américo’s work and the way they relate to national and foreign artists from the same period, trying to understand Américo’s paintings in the artistic context in which they were produced and to analyze the criticism they originated.

The present research counts with the support of FAPESP and CAPES: grant 2016/01908-4, São Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP)

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Fabriccio Miguel Novelli Duro (UNIFESP)

Pedro Américo and the 1884 Fine Arts General Exhibition: Religious History Painting and Orientalism

It is intended to present the first questions raised by my master’s research, “Pedro Américo and the 1884 Fine Arts General Exhibition: Religious History Painting and Orientalism”, carried out at the Federal University of São Paulo Graduate Program in Art History (PPGHA-UNIFESP) and supervised by Elaine Dias.

This research aims to study three paintings maintained by the National Museum of Fine Arts in Rio de Janeiro: David and Abishag (1879), Judith and Holofernes (1880) and Moses and Jochebed (1884), painted by the Brazilian artist Pedro Américo (1843-1905). These paintings depict scenes from the Old Testament and were exhibited in 1884 at the 26th Fine Arts General Exhibition organized by the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts. Our research goal is to investigate this group of paintings in their formal and thematic conceptions, emphasizing its relationship with the renewal of religious history painting in the nineteenth century and the changes on that specific genre during this period, as well as the changes caused by the orientalism in the arts. It is also our objective to understand the place of these paintings in Pedro Américo’s work and the way they relate to national and foreign artists from the same period, trying to understand Américo’s paintings in the artistic context in which they were produced and to analyze the criticism they originated.

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Flora Pereira Flor (PPGAV/EBA/UFRJ)

Painted Copies of D. João VI museum: European pictorial tradition and academic education

This proposal for poster presentation at the VII Seminar of Museu D. João VI and V Colloquium of Studies on the Brazilian Art of the Nineteenth Century has as object the studies of Painted Copies from the Didactic Collection of Museu D. João VI and their relationship with the academic education system of the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts – AIBA.

The objective of this proposal is to demonstrate, in the artist’s training system, the acquisition and use of a painted copy is linked not only to an academic teaching model, but also to a model of European pictorial tradition and of the history of such tradition.

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Guilherme Frazão Conduru (PPGAV/EBA/UFRJ)

Contending allegories: Pedro Américo and Belmiro de Almeida in Itamaraty: the visual representation of the nation in the nascent Republic

To express the cultural identity of the Brazilian nation has been a persistent concern for the agents of the historical process of the arts in Brazil. The links that bind the arts to the representation of nationhood become overtly exposed during periods of political turmoil. Both the Independence, in 1822, and the Republic, in 1889, required the elaboration of identity references to represent the nation and thus legitimize political power and strengthen social cohesion. In the allegories The discoverers (1899), by Belmiro de Almeida (1858-1935), and Peace and Concordia (1902), by Pedro Américo (1843-1905), both from Itamaraty Palace, national identity is envisaged and represented though on distinct ways. Conceived during the consolidation the Republican regime, each one expresses a different mode of visually representing the nation. To confront them will allow evaluating the meaning of brazilianness they aspired to express.

The title of and the scene pictured in Belmiro’s painting refer to the outcasts who were left behind on land by Cabral on his way to India, in 1500. By associating the outcasts to the discoverers, have the painter meant that petit criminals, common folk, were the true colonizers of Portuguese America? He might have also asked how such a country could succeed. A painted garland frames the scene; on the lower side a cartouche displays the title and a quote from Virgil in Latin, which exalts the Trojans founders of Rome. Pessimistic or optimistic, the sarcastic canvas stages a critical allegory of Brazilian history.

Peace and Concordia presents few hints related to Brazilian identity, details that might pass unnoticed even to the meticulous observer. There are no references to the tropical exuberance of the landscape, neither to the continental dimensions of the territory, nor to the ethnic formation of the people. Contrary to famous historical paintings by Américo, this allegory remained unknown to the public. The figuration of Christian faith and civilization, the grandiloquent style, the pageantry of connoisseurship and the adhesion to the standards of academic tradition were not enough to convey popularity to the painting. Both the lack of local references and the disregard to contemporary issues that affected Brazil at the time have not contributed to the social appropriation of it. In fact, like a joker card, the painting seems to have been conceived as an allegory that could represent and pay homage to any nationality of western Christendom.

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João Victor Rosseti Brancato (UFJF)

Between the classroom and the ‘Salon’: art criticism and the importance of drawing in the 1920s”

 Starting from the art critic Adalberto Mattos (1888-1966) this study proposes to expand the 1920’s debate about art education in Rio de Janeiro, assuming its different perspectives and personalities, not only at the artistic field, but also at the political and intellectual.

To comprehend the possible relationship between those different personalities shall give us the dimension of the artistic debates in Rio de Janeiro and how these connects with other issues in time, as public education, increasing of Brazilian industry, etc. – subjects completely linked to Modernity.

To undertake this research, we will analyze some articles by Mattos in different journals of the 1920’s – time that the critic is most active in the press – and the relationship established with other authors in time.  In order to contextualize the discussions to enhance horizons, some questions will be linked with different sights in time, such as the possible approaches with São Paulo’s critics and origins of these debates in the 19th century.

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Lucas Elber de Souza Cavalcanti (EBA/UFRJ)

Art and architecture as political speeches: a comparative study on the architectural design of the Moorish Pavilion (Fiocruz) and the National School of Architecture (UFRJ)

Situated in Rio de Janeiro city, the Moorish Pavilion of Fiocruz, since its inception in 1905, was defined as a keystone of health in Brazil. Builded in eclectic style, the edifice is composed by an outline alluding to Elizabethan English palaces in association with mozarabs inspirations. It was designed by Luiz de Moraes Junior, a Portuguese architect, to be the headquarters of the National Antivenum Institute, requested by Oswaldo Cruz.

In contrast, the National School of Architecture building (1961) was designed by Jorge Machado Moreira according to the modernist proposal which called for renewal of architecture, breaking with previous styles. The fight against historicism, academicism and ornaments, the main defenses of Eclecticism, will guide such architectural design.

The objective of this study is to analyze the political speeches that supported the construction of the Moorish Pavilion in opposition of those implicated in the construction of the National School of Architecture, in order to understand the expression of political and aesthetic programs by each one of the architectural typologies, represented by each building.

It can be observed in both projects the idea of an engaged modernity towards cleaning a previous condition of the society itself. Both the Moorish Pavilion, such as the National School of Architecture, bring with them the idea of a development by an earlier stage, spreading new ideas and concerns about the building of the nation. However, it is necessary to be aware about how these projects were implemented the city of Rio de Janeiro.

It was used as research methodologies the analysis of the architectural features and the literature review in order to investigate how two different urban planning concepts were designed and carried out in the city, over a period slightly larger than 50 years. This analysis was performed through documents, speeches of the protagonists of the period, photographs and building plans.

It was concluded that both conceptions, perceived in their respective symbolic loads, reverberate differents project of city (or urban). In this regard, it was noted that art and architecture, in the analyzed buildings, can also express political speeches and, in these cases, they were imbued in a modernity sense. These speeches were responsible for a devise and a project of society to a nation with major social problems to be overcome.

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Márcia Valéria Teixeira Rosa (UNIRIO e UFRJ)

The portraits of emperors Dom Pedro II and Teresa Cristina

In celebration of the 200th Anniversary of the Academy of Fine Arts in Rio de Janeiro, we intend to present some considerations in a art of portrait in the nineteenth century produced at the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts. We emphasize the major portraitists in the imperial period and more precisely, those who represented the Emperor Dom Pedro II and his wife, the Empress Teresa Cristina.

The genre of the portrait was made official in the nineteenth century Brazilian art system to attend mainly to the documentary character of the court in Brazil. Between 1850 and 1890, much of the artistic production held at the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts was guided by the creation of a national imaginary and therefore had as its main inspiration the historical events of the country and the portrait of important characters of society.

The methodology used in portrait painting creation process established thus rules that should be followed: immortalize the character consistent poses with the function exercised in society and perpetuate their personality, therefore, the social prestige of the depicted.

In fact, the portrait in the nineteenth century had the function of maintaining a place of memory, preserve the image of certain historical character. The artists recorded important figures in Brazilian history, and recurring advertising to the monarchy.

The demands of the imperial family portraits orders were significant, especially during the Second Empire, since it legitimized the power exercised by these people, immortalizing them for the construction of the country’s history, in its permanent presence symbolic.

Therefore, we intend to present in this paper some questions about the portraits of Their Majesties, whose implied representation models in their wide reproduction for construction of national identity.

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Maria Silvina Sosa Vota (UNILA – Universidade Federal da Integração Latino-Americana / Paraná)

Pedro Subercaseaux and La Primera Misa en Chile (1904): between academicism and modernism

 By analyzing publications and art critic’s from the 20th century, it is possible to determinate that in the career of the Chilean painter Pedro Subercaseux, La Primera Misa en Chile (The First Mass in Chile), painted in 1904, was  a crucial work in his artistic trajectory. In spite of the importance of this History painting and its painter, we have not yet founded systematic studies of them. For this reason, we tried to answer the why of this asymmetry.  With the main objective of clarify this problem, there will be presented some analytic paths. In the first place, we will try to understand the time in which the painting appears – 19th to 20th Century transition – paying special attention on the sociopolitical and artistical characteristics of the period. Then, we will study the system of artistic education to verify if this had or not a structural role in the understanding and critics of the painting, specially in the 20th Century. From these elements, we will try to point a modest answer to the problem proposed, thinking about Subercaseaux and his painting of La Primera Misa en Chile as subjects/objects in between of the conflict of an artistic and politic word in transition.

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Patrícia Figueiredo Pedrosa (PPGAV/EBA/UFRJ)

Rio de Janeiro School of Fine Arts and the teaching in workshops

Schools are special institutions within the field of art, which are revealed through the actions of their agents: artists, historians, critics, teachers and students. The possibilities of their performance  are, in a variable proportion, connected to the curricula formatted according to the philosophical lines specific to each institution.

Among the many issues involved in the history of the school of fine arts of UFRJ, we will cover the presence of specific workshops and ateliers in the structural body of the school and its teaching. We will support this reflection on the analysis made by Thierry de Duve in the article “When shape became attitude and beyond” (2003), in which he investigates the paradigm shifts that have taken place in art education: the academic model, the Bauhaus model and the postmodern model. These models also influenced the teaching in Brazil, notwithstanding the singularities of our history.

Duve’s work examining these models help us understand the current crisis in the art education. The change of the Bauhaus concept of creativity to the postmodern concept of attitude was preceded by the invasion of the theory (commonly called French Theory) in schools that had as a consequence the subversion workshop practice.

The deconstruction became a method for producing and teaching art, which although interesting in producing works proved to be sterile for teaching, resulting in students that  deconstruct what they never had opportunity to build.

Our school, seeking to strike a balance between traditionalism and modernization of its methods presents workshops in its curricular grids. Mandatory subjects for some courses, offered as elective subjects to other graduation courses are tools that allow students to investigate various alternatives and experience the means in the questioning of their research, which is the fundamental basis in their learning.

We understand that the removal of the workshops in the name of a supposed update corresponds to a modernist concept of opposition to the past, already obsolete. Arthur Danto clarifies to us that contemporary art has nothing against the art of the past, which should be available for any use that the artists want to give it. In this way, we should suppress, but at least keep the existing possibilities. The preservation of the workshops is a valid tool to contemporary education because in addition to expanding artistic possibilities, contributes to the conservation of the cultural heritage and the preservation of knowledge.

 

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Tomas Ezequiel Bondone (ESBA – Escuela Superior de Bellas Artes Dr. José Figueroa Alcorta, Córdoba, Argentina)

Córdoba Fine Arts Academy Gipsoteca: educational models in the outskirts.

 Since its creation in 1896, the School of Fine Arts “Dr. José Figueroa Alcorta” from Córdoba (Argentina) was interested in the construction of a gipsoteca. Emilio Caraffa (1862 – 1939), founder and first director of this centre (which is still active today), tried to form a collection of carbon copies and plaster cast copies since its beginning. This collection was consolidated towards the middle of the 1920’s decade with the good quality castings brought by Professor Carlos Camillioni (1882 – 1950) from Europe, a task with a high social reception significance. Towards the last quarter of the 20th century, this collection was scattered and in a state of abandon and deterioration. In the year 2004, restoration tasks started to take place including cataloguing and exhibition in a process of recovering artwork and models which have been forgotten or reduced to the repetition of normative cliché. The present paper proposes a reflection on the original meaning of these collections and its meaning inside the teaching processes, teaching arts in the outskirts, such as “caso Córdoba”. Furthermore, issues such as the disuse and following deterioration until its “new valuation” in the 21st century are questioned.

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Valéria Mendes Fasolato (PPGHIS/UFJF)

Esquecimento of Mary Pardos: “the first nude Salon”

Maria Pardos (Zaragoza, Spain, 1866 or 1867 – Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1928) exposed Esquecimento, a half-naked painting, at the General Exhibitions of Fine Arts of 1915. In fact, she participated of the event six times in a row: from 1913 until 1918. The painter started hers artistic actuation by exhibiting at the Salon, as disciple of Rodolpho Amoedo, according to the catalogs. In 1913, she received honorable mention in 1st grade and, in 1914, conquered the bronze medal with the painting Sem Pão. In 1915, Pardos won her highest award, the small silver medal, which we can consider as the biggest moment of her brief career as a painter. We int end to, with this communication, discuss larger issues than the particular study of an artwork and one artist attending in the 1915 Salão. By analyzing the painting Esquecimento on the General Exhibitions of Fine Arts context, we will try, by using the micro bias, understand the macro, and the relations between official field and non-official formations. We do not consider Maria Pardos as a student in the Nacional School of Fine Arts, but only  being formed in the private Rodolpho Amoedo’s studio, and yet being part of the General Exhibitions of Fine Arts and unofficial exhibitions, such as the ones in the Jorge Gallery, where she exposed Esquecimento in 1916. In face of it, two questions opens: The first one is related with the artists’ formation outside the Nacional School: how did their formation took place? Considering this particular case, it is important to point out the significance of investigating the group that have prepared itself in divers e ways, such as occurred with Maria Pardos, outside the Brazilians artists’ official institution of education.  The second question is connected with the nonofficial environments, for example, Jorge Gallery: how did the relation between official and nonofficial space occurred? The Gallery could be seen, as the place were collectors could purchase his national and international artworks. Beyond being able to provide the art commerce, it is possible to question the interdependence between official and nonofficial spaces. To Jorge Gallery, it was important saying that the artist and the artwork displaying in its walls had been exposed on General Exhibitions and were officially judged. This importance was because the received prizes were published on the newspapers. Therefore, for beyond the mechanical questions of the art market, the study of this particular case, allows us to see the relations between the official and nonofficial spaces.

 

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